Frequently Asked Questions

Please see below answers to frequently asked questions regarding Healthcare Ready’s project, Impact of COVID-19 on Communities of Color.

Pandemic Polling

  • We worked with YouGov, an international polling firm, to carry out the surveys for this project. Surveys were conducted by YouGov using an online interview administered to members of the YouGov Plc panel of individuals who have agreed to take part in surveys. Emails were sent to panelists selected at random from the base sample. The e-mail invited them to take part in a survey and provided a generic survey link.
  • Surveys were completed at three timepoints – late October-early November 2020, late December 2020, and early March 2021. For exact polling dates, see the full methodology.
  • For national-level polling, we surveyed a minimum of 1,300 people for each month. For state-level polling, we surveyed a minimum of 200 people per state each month. For exact polling numbers, see the full methodology. Polling was representative for the locations surveyed (e.g., national-level polls are representative the United States residents; Louisiana polls are representative of Louisiana residents).
  • We performed descriptive comparative analysis of results across months.
  • We also performed statistical analysis using proportion t-tests to understand if there were statistical differences between demographic groups.
  • For detailed information on survey analysis, see the full methodology.
  • IC3 poll data is displayed in intereative Tableau visualizations (“vizes”). Each viz contains multiple months of data for a single poll question.
  • Data has been visualized using two main formats – bar graphs and tables. Some data is broken down further by demographic.
  • For bar graphs:
  1. Each bar is labeled with the percentage of respondents who selected this choice as an answer to the poll question. This label is shown within the bar itself, and is
  2. For December and March data, there is a second statistic above the bar in italics. This statistic is the change in percentage of respondents compared to the previous month.
  3. Use the scroll bar at the bottom of the viz to view additional data.
  • For tables:
  1. Tables are color coded, with darker shades representing a larger percentage of respondent answers.
  2. Use the scroll bar at the bottom of the table to view additional columns of data.
  • For vizes with demographic breakdowns:
  1. Vizes with demographic analysis include two filters that allow you to customize the visualization: 1) Month and 2) Demographic category (e.g., Race).
  2. These are located in the top left of these vizes.
  3. Check or uncheck boxes within these filters to customize the data that is visible. Note: Filtering by month will not adjust the italicized calculation of change over month. That is, if you choose to filter data to view data for October and March, the italicizied number above the March data bar will not reflect the change between October and March – it will still reflect the change between December and March, even though December data is not visible.


  • We conducted 30 interviews with representatives from community-based organizations (CBOs) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana (17 interviews), and Hidalgo County, Texas (13 interviews).
  • We interviewed representatives from community-based organizations in Baton Rouge and Hidalgo County. In total, 17 and 13 CBOs responded to interview requests from Baton Rouge and Hidalgo, respectively, that provide services such as: Healthcare for low-income populations, housing support, food relief, and more.
  • Both regions were selected for this exercise due to being highly ranked on three indices indicating likely greater vulnerabilities to negative effects of COVID-19 and other hazards: CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index, a Healthcare Ready-generated Composite Health and Healthcare Index, and COVID-19 case and death rates. In addition to being highly ranked, these areas were selected due to their high exposure to natural hazards, such as hurricanes and flooding.
  • CBOs were identified through the help of Healthcare Ready’s partner network, such as National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster and regional chapters of national advocacy groups, as well as via Google Search for non-profit organizations focused on providing relief and assistance such as local food banks, faith-based organizations, and schools.
  • Interviews followed a semi-structured interview format covering four areas of research interest:
  1. Demographics of Community Served;
  2. Resource Needs;
  3. Future Gaps; and
  4. Solutions/Actions.

  • The following 12 questions were asked to all interview participants:
  1. How do you define your community or the community your organization serves?
  2. What are the biggest needs people have experienced due to COVID-19?
  3. In your opinion, which of these is the main need or current priority? Can you explain that?
  4. How does your organization work to help with those needs?
  5. Is your organization doing new work, or has your organization substantially modified its work, to address the impact of COVID-19? If yes, How so?
  6. Is your organization participating in any partnerships with other organizations to address the impact of COVID-19? If yes, can you tell me about those partnerships?
  7. In your opinion, what are the remaining needs that still need to be addressed?
  8. What are the existing barriers to addressing those needs?
  9. What resources does your organization—or the community in general—need to address those needs?
  10. What partnerships could or should be created or supported to address those needs?
  11. What processes at the state or local level would you change to address barriers or problems that your organization has encountered? How would you change those processes?
  12. Any other thoughts about what needs to happen to address the unmet needs of people in your community?
  • All interviews were conducted by phone and transcribed into notes in an Excel spreadsheet. Using a grounded theory approach, commonly occurring themes were identified if they occurred for more than 20% (3) participants within a region. The most common themes surfaced in this exercise are categorized across four categories: Individual Needs, Barriers to Meeting Individual Needs, Needs for Community Based Organizations, and Barriers for Community Based Organizations, and explained in further detail within the Community Needs Assessment.

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